Learning how to change a diaper is a skill new parents are forced to adopt immediately and adapt often

Dad and mom must continually evolve the diapering skills needed as their newborn becomes a squirming baby, who becomes a restless toddler. Meanwhile, the poop just keeps coming. But there are professionals like Amanda Kellmer, a NICU nurse educator at Randall Children’s Hospital in Portland, Oregon, who don’t have the luxury of seeing diaper changes end at potty training. They can offer the best tips for how to change a diaper. Kellmer’s first note? Get ready for a lot of trial and error.

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Get Ready to Shift Diaper Changing Tactics When Necessary
Ideally, parents are changing their babies on a clean, dry surface complete with safety straps. But babies apparently didn’t get the memo. Inevitably, every parent will be in a situation where they’re changing a baby in a less-than-ideal place, like a restaurant bathroom with no changing table, or outdoors.

If possible, get the kid to the car and put them in the trunk. That may not sound like the best plan, but the trunk is also the flattest area of a car, and the walls work as boundaries. Barring automotive availability, Kellmer suggests finding the flattest, driest place available. If it’s elevated, keep a hand on the baby at all times for safety. And if there’s no changing pad or blanket around, utilize what’s easily accessible nearby.

“You can always pull a bunch of paper towels or seat covers in a public restroom,” she says.
Always Be Prepared for Diaper Changing
The biggest amateur move parents can make is leaving the house without enough diapers. If a parent thinks the baby might need to be changed once, pack backups. And then backups for the backups. Because kids have a habit of hitting pause on their bathroom breaks and resuming the action right when a new diaper’s halfway on.

“Grab an (extra) diaper or two, because you never know if you’re going to go through more than one diaper,” says Kellmer.
Develop a Bottom Wiping and Cleaning Routine
Poop doesn’t just stay in the back of the baby. It can get everywhere. But having a solid routine — almost a mental checklist — can help when cleaning up.

Wipe front to back. If the baby has skin folds, make sure no waste has gotten in there. If it’s a boy, clean under the scrotum and penis. With girls, parents need to use a little more caution.

Kellmer says parents should wipe once to ensure that each area is clean, and repeat as necessary. “Wipe the sides, the outside of the area. If there’s poop in the inner labia, you want to do that last,” she says, adding that parents should wipe gently to avoid pushing waste into hard-to-clean areas due to excess pressure.
Consider Diapers Multi-purpose Tools
Don’t just use diapers as waste-capturing vessels. When changing a baby, a clean diaper should be placed underneath the backside like a pad before the straps are loosed. Once the dirty diaper is unstrapped, wipe down with the front end in order to get excess poop out of the way before getting into the wipes. And while disposing of a dirty diaper, use the clean one to cover up the urethra in order to avoid an unwanted shower.
Mask the Diaper Smell
Even the most scent-averse parents can have their gag reflexes seriously tested by a baby. A survey of sanitation workers and nurses reveals a few tricks that could make things better. Many opt for a dab of essential oil or a swipe of Vicks Vaporub across the upper lip. For more serious scents, apply a mentholated or minty product on the inside of a standard dust mask. Also, invest in some sort of scent-containing storage container like a Diaper Genie for the spent packages.
Respect the Diaper Ruffles
There’s a lot of debate on whether to use cloth or disposable diapers, but one thing’s for certain: disposable diapers have cloth diapers beat when it comes to features and component. But the most important component isn’t the little blue line that indicates wetness, it’s the ruffles, which might as well be floodgates. Paying attention to them is key to avoiding catastrophe.

“Most disposable diapers have an inner ruffle and an outer ruffle. You want to make sure that the outer ruffle is not tucked in,” says Kellmer. “They’re there as an extra barrier for blowouts.”

And for new parents who haven’t heard the term blowout yet, well … look, make sure that ruffle isn’t tucked in.
Understand Diaper Size Is Only a Guideline
Diaper sizes aren’t gospel. They’re recommendations. Parents aren’t beholden to them. The right size diaper for a baby is, simply put, the diaper that fits. The wrong size will either be too snug or allow waste to escape.

“You don’t lowrider, saggy diaper pants,” says Kellmer. “You want it to be just snug enough that you can get a finger between the diaper and the baby. You don’t want it to be too loose.”
Combat Diaper Rash Through Prevention
Diaper rash is an inevitability that starts with irritation, peaks with screaming, and promises to be repeated often. Controlling it is all about controlling moisture. If a baby’s wet, change them. Clean the area with water, then dab it dry.

“The best way to counteract is to prevent it,” says Kellmer. “Don’t let babies stay in wet or dirty diapers for too long. If there’s a little bit of redness, you can apply diaper cream (preferably a zinc oxide-based one), but really the way it’s going to heal fastest is to keep it dry. Use water to clean, and dabbing to dry.”
Use Diaper Changing Time to Bond
A diaper change can be frustrating, but it’s also a time for bonding. Consider it a captive-audience meeting. Parents can use the time to practice eye contact, sing songs, tickle tummies, talk, and play. Until the kid is old enough to begin trying to escape, it’s actually kind of a special time, even if there’s poop involved, and helps firm up the bond between a newborn and a new parent.
Don’t Panic Over Diaper Changes
Kellmer says that she frequently sees new dads panicking about diaper changes. Some get frustrated at their lack of knowledge. Others get grossed out. Many feel like they’re failures when they screw up and have to start anew, while some freak out because they think they’re upsetting the child by taking too long.

Breathe, Kellmer says. It’s a trial and error process. It’s not the baby getting frustrated. Treat each change as a way to practice before becoming a diaper black belt.

“Babies don’t judge you. Babies are the most forgiving humans ever. They just appreciate that you’re doing anything for them,” says Kellmer. “You’re gonna make mistakes. You’ll get quicker and faster. You’ll get it down.”
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